Thursday, 22 October 2015

William Q Judge's Aphorisms on Karma and Hindu Scripture (Part 2)

It is not clear how critical E. Desikacharya is of these Aphorisms, but that's OK because back in the day, discussion, criticism and debate had an important place in the various theosophical periodicals, which are still worth checking out -At the time, The Theosophist, Lucifer, and The Path, and others were of a rather remarkably consistent high quality.

(13) The effects may be counteracted or mitigated by the thoughts and acts of oneself or of another, and then the resulting effects represent the combination and interaction of the whole number of causes involved in producing the effects.
"The effects (of Karma) which have not yet begun to operate will be counteracted, or will die out (Brahma Sutras.IV, 4, 1)
See also the Prayaschitka Khanda and Madhavacharya, Commentary on Parasara Smriti, chapter on Karmavipaka.

Madhvacharya, at the end of the chapter on Prayaschitta, observes that all of them are. only for Sancita Karma and not for Prarabdha Karma, and refers to the Brahma Sutras above quoted for his authority. He also adds that any prayaschitta undergone for counteracting or mitigating any other kind of Karma is no real prayaschitta, for, although their fruition is temporarily held in abeyance, he will have to suffer it in the future.

(14) In the life of worlds, races, nations, and individuals, Karma cannot act unless there is an appropriate instrument provided for its action.
See references to Aphorism No. 1.

(15) And until such appropriate instrument is found, that Karma related to it remains unexpended.
"In the Sanhita Karma, that which is most powerful, first begins to bear fruition, and it has body (also) as its instrument to work through." . (Madhavacharya , Prayaschitta Kanda):

See also references for Aphorism No. 13.

(16) While a man is experiencing Karma in the instrument provided, his other unexpended Karma is not exhausted through other beings or means, but is held reserved for future operation; and lapse of time during which no operation of that Karma is felt causes no deterioration in its force or change in its nature.
“Only when there are Klesas (Kama, Kroda, &c.), will Karma be able to bear fruition. When there are no Klesas, no Karma can act, just as rice which has husk and which is not fried will sprout. Thus Karma will not be operative either when the husk of the Klesas are burnt off by Brahmagnana, or when there is no such husk. The fruition of Karma is either age and experience. We shall now enquire, is one kind of Karma the cause of one birth, or many births? Or, are several kinds of Karma the causes of a single birth? If we think of saying that a single Karma is the cause of birth , that will not do, as we cannot say whether it is one of the Karmas done in the previous births, or a Karma of the present birth, that is the cause of the next birth . Hence mankind will not, as a body, have a desire to do good Karma.* If we should suppose a single Karma, then the case becomes more hopeless. If we should again suppose that several Karmas are the cause of several births, how can there be a large number of births in a single birth, the conclusion to which we are invariably driven. Thus what we should say is, that certain kinds of Karma committed between birth and death (in an incarnation) group round a more important Karma, cause the individual’s death, and give him a new birth altogether. It is those Karmas that give him sufficient age (to experience ) . How to know them we can only infer...”

“ Karma is of two kinds, viz., that which bears fruition and that which does not. That which we can infer from the mere fact of our existence, is the Karma which bears fruition (Niyatavipaka).The other kind of Karma (Aniyatavipaka) is of three kinds : (a ) That which perishes in the bud : (b) That which acts as an auxiliary to a more important karma (c) and that which does not begin to bear fruition at once , but only works after several incarnations. The Sruti says: ‘Two kinds of Karma should be known : one is bad; the virtuous make it perish . Hence shouldst thou desire to make good Karma . Gnanis know this Karma” (Vyasadeva`s Commentary on Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras , II, 13)

“The residue of works have affliction for their root, and are felt (either ) in this manifest birth , (or) in the unmanifest one”. (Sutra XII).

(17) The appropriateness of an instrument for the operation of Karma consists in the exact connection and relation of the Karma with the body, mind, intellectual and psychical nature acquired for use by the Ego in any life.
See references for Aphorism No. 14.

(18) Every instrument used by any Ego in any life is appropriate to the Karma operating through it.

(19) Changes may occur in the instrument during one life so as to make it appropriate for a new class of Karma, and this may take place in two ways: (a) through intensity of thought and the power of a vow, and (b) through natural alterations due to complete exhaustion of old causes.
In other words, the Karma which was hitherto bearing fruition has stopped doing so owing to the “repetition of Mantras, penance (under which is included Prayaschitta ) and Samadhi,”which are no other than the “ intensity of thought” and “ power of a vow”. See Bhojadeva’s or Vyasadeva’s Commentary on Patanjali’s Sutra (II, xii).

(20) As body and mind and soul have each a power of independent action, any one of these may exhaust, independently of others, some Karmic causes more remote from or nearer to the time of their inception than those operating though other channels.

(21) Karma is both merciful and just. Mercy and Justice are only opposite poles of a single whole; and Mercy without Justice is not possible in the operations of Karma. That which man calls Mercy and Justice is defective, errant, and impure.

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